Resources Relating to Clinical Management of Child Speech Disorder

Changing terminology from Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia to Childhood Apraxia of Speech

In this article Jan Broomfield, Pam Williams and Joanne Cleland from the CSDR network put forward the case for adopting international terminology for Childhood Apraxia of Speech.

Reference: Broomfield, J., Cleland, J., & Williams, P. (2023). What's in a name? Dr Jan Broomfield, Dr Joanne Cleland and Dr Pam Williams make their case for adopting the term 'childhood apraxia of speech'. Bulletin: The Official Magazine Of The Royal College Of Speech & Language Therapists, (833), 22-23.

Transcription guidelines

Transcription informs every decision we take about intervention for a child when we tackle their speech sound problem. By carrying out and examining a transcription we come to understand a child’s speech profile, what we should do and what else we need to know.  This provides guidance on how to undertake this type of transcription.

The 'Good practice guidelines for transcription of children's speech samples in clinical practice and research', can be downloaded by clicking on the PDF below.

Analysis guidelines

The analysis of a child's transcribed speech sample provides us with the data we need to identify targets and plan intervention.  There are a number of types of analysis which can be carried out, depending on the child's presenting needs.  These guidelines provide information on how to carry out this analysis. 

Further advice and guidance may be found on the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapist (RCSLT): Clinical Resources on Developmental Speech Difficulties page. 

Links and resources

Phonetic and Phonological Systems Analysis (PPSA)
The PPSA is a tool designed by Dr Sally Bates (Marjon) and Dr Jocelynne Watson (QMU) to aid a straightforward and linguistically principled organisation of phonetically transcribed speech data.  More information and details of this tool can be download from (revamped PPSA)

The 'User Guide' can be downloaded by clicking on the Link below.

PPSA User Guide 2018

The 'Data Charting and Summary Form' can be downloaded by clicking on the Link below.

PPSA Charting and Analysis Form 2019


CAV-ES (Clinical Assessment of Vowels – English Systems)

CAV-ES is an informal assessment tool which facilitates identification of systematic vowel error patterns such as ‘vowel lowering’, ‘vowel backing’ or ‘diphthong reduction’.  The assessment comprises a word list, picture set, analysis sheets and User Guide, all of which are free to download from


Choosing targets using the complexity approach is a decision making tool designed by Dr Jill Titterington (Ulster University).

The aim of this tool is to support SLTs in their selection of targets when using the complexity approaches and the multiple oppositions approach. The complexity approaches may be suitable for children 4 years-of-age or over who present with a moderate to severe consistent phonological impairment (when the SSD is not due to underlying physical difficulties in either physical structure or musculature). Multiple oppositions is an approach that is suitable for children with a phonological impairment resulting in multiple phoneme collapse i.e., where one sound substitutes many. This decision making tool also provides some guidance on the development and delivery of regular probe tests and on the process of eliciting 3-element clusters when these are selected as a target. 


Supporting and Understanding Speech Sound Disorder: SuSSD

SuSSD provides speech and language therapists (SLTs) with a clinical decision making tool to support appropriate selection of one of three possible interventions for children with consistent phonological impairment (conventional minimal pairs (Weiner 1981), multiple oppositions (Williams 2000), and the complexity approach (Gierut 1989, Gierut and Champion 2001)).


Decision making tree for children with speech sound disorder (SSD)

The Decision making tree for children with SSD was developed by Dr Helen Stringer (Newcastle University, UK). The aim of this tool is to support speech and language therapists in their clinical decision making for children with speech sound disorder by clarifying the route from diagnosis to evidence based interventions. References to sources and evidence were the most up to date at time of writing.

The HS decision making tree is also available in Portuguese: 

Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS)
The ICS has been developed to provide speech-language therapists with information about children's intelligibility (e.g., children with speech sound disorders, childhood apraxia of speech). More information and details of this tool can be download from


Multilingual Children’s speech
The purpose of this website is to present a compilation of resources for SLPs who are working with multilingual children with speech sound disorders. More information and details of this tool can be download from


Webfon: phonetic transcription self-study programme

Webfon is an online resource which supports the development and maintenance of phonetic transcription skills by providing hierarchically structured listening and transcription exercises combined with immediate feedback on performance.  The exercises, ranging from Fields 1 to 3, progress from phoneme classification and auditory discrimination tasks to the transcription of simulated clinical data and, finally, live recorded clinical speech samples.  Webfon is free to access from: